Since I covered a bunch of stuff, here are some of the references and high points from my talk: "Technology in your Homeschool Curriculum"
What can one do with billions of transistors?
Start with one transistor, simple switching device (digital). It's on or off, true or false, 0 or 1. Wire a couple together and you get an AND gate.
Combine a NOT gate and an AND gate and you can solve the truth table where you want the output to be true (1) only when B is 1. That is to say: let there be truth when (NOT A) AND B.
So, if you wire the A input to a NOT gate and have that go into an AND gate that B is also wired to, then you have the result. Suppose you now want to add A and B, then simply use the mirror of (NOT A) AND B and "OR" it: ((NOT A) AND B) OR (A AND (NOT B)). That gives you the sum, but don't forget the carry which is simply A AND B.
Now you have a binary half adder (you can add two digits). Combine two of those (along with an OR of the CARRY output for each) and you have a full adder. String together 3 full adders and you can add two 3 digit binary numbers!
Wasn't that easy??
Having gone through lightbot, a teacher can re-iterate the fundamentals with a language like Python: procedures, overloading, loops, and conditionals. Futhermore, with concepts learned in Scratch, Hopscotch, and even game-creation apps like GamePress, variables of varying data-types can be explained. Start with a simple program to emulate "Mad Libs" and work up to more complex programs that can leverage device (pythonista) libraries for accelerometer or screen input; leverage minecraft (Bukkit server) libraries to build things in a Minecraft world; leverage GPIO libraries to read sensor input/update led output from a raspberry pi cobbler kit.
This BMO-creeper contains a student coded microcontroller, not TNT.